House

Oversight Committee Seeks Purdue OxyContin Documents

On March 21, House Oversight Committee Chairman Elijah Cummings (D-MD) and Rep. Mark DeSaulnier (D-CA) sent a letter to Purdue Pharma requesting documents related to how it has aggressively marketed OxyContin, a key player in the ongoing opioid crisis. The documents requested include the list of Sacklers, the family that owns the company, who worked for Purdue Pharma or served on the board, information about the drug manufacturer’s marketing strategies and communication between employees and family members.

Find the letter here.

Senate

Grassley, Wyden Seek Answers About Doctor-Owned Medical Suppliers

On March 21, Sens. Chuck Grassley (R-IA) and Ron Wyden (D-OR) sent a letter to the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), seeking answers on their efforts to monitor medical suppliers that are partly owned by the physicians whose practices they supply.

The senators expressed their concern that some physician-owned distributorships might be disregarding the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, which requires them to disclose any physician’s ownership or investment interest. The letter notes that such financial relationships carried a possibility for wrongdoing. The senators also asked whether HHS had updated its compliance guidelines for hospitals, and what steps it took when it was told that a physician-owned distributorship failed to report a doctor’s ownership or investment interest.

The senators requested answers to their questions by April 15, saying that they wanted to work together to make sure physician-owned distributorships were properly reporting under the disclosure law so that stakeholders could trust federal health care programs and patients could trust the quality of their care.

Find the letter here.

Read more on healthcare policy on the McGuireWoods Consulting website.

Capitol hill building in the morning

Save the Internet Act

Looking ahead, House Democratic leaders plan to hold a floor vote on the Save the Internet Act (H.R. 1644) during the second week of April. The bill has yet to clear the House Energy and Commerce Committee, but Technology and Communications Subcommittee Chairman Doyle (D-PA) has noted a Subcommittee markup could take place as early as next week.

Cannabis

The House Financial Services Committee will also consider legislation on Tuesday to create a safe harbor for financial institutions working with cannabis businesses in accordance with state laws.

Disaster Aid, New Green Deal and More

The Senate is expected to vote next week on a $13.6 billion disaster aid package. Leader McConnell (R-KY) also plans to hold a messaging vote a the New Green Deal resolution. On Thursday, David Bernhardt will testify in support of his nomination to be the next Secretary of the Interior before the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee. House and Senate appropriations and authorizing committees will hold hearings in the coming weeks to discuss the FY20 budget and the Administration’s policy priorities with Cabinet secretaries and agency heads. A number of hearings are already scheduled for next week, with more to follow.

Meetings with the President

Today, the President will host the leaders of the Bahamas, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, and Saint Lucia at Mar-a-Lago. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu will travel to Washington March 25-26 for meetings with the President.

The House and Senate were both in recess this week.

White House Activity

On Tuesday, the President hosted Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro at the White House for bilateral meetings. He also announced he will nominate Steve Dickson to be administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration. Dickson is a former airline pilot and would replace FAA Acting Administrator Dan Elwell.

American Artificial Intelligence Initiative

Elsewhere, the White House launched a website dedicated to artificial intelligence built around the President’s recent executive order on the American AI Initiative.

Read more in our Emerging Technologies Washington Update.

Federal Updates

  • On March 11, the White House rolled out the President’s $4.7 trillion FY20 budget proposal. The proposed budget includes significant cuts to non-defense discretionary funding, including significant decreases in budgets for the U.S. Departments of Education and Health and Human Services. Meanwhile, House and Senate appropriators on Capitol Hill have already indicated that they intend to use many of their FY19 numbers as a starting point for FY20.
  • Items from the proposed budget affecting education include:
    • Elimination of the $250 million Preschool Development Grants from the Child Care and Development Block Grant
    • $300 million for education, innovation and research in K-12 schools – an increase of $170 million from FY19.
    • Elimination of the $2.06 billion program, Supporting Effective Instruction State Grants (Title II-A). The proposal includes level funding for Teacher and School Leader Incentive Grants at $200 million.
    • $12.6 million increase in national programs funds for career and technical education to support innovation and modernization grants newly authorized under the 2018 reauthorization of the Career and Technical Education Act.
    • In higher education, the proposal outlines a plan to increase postsecondary institution accountability for the repayment of students loans.
    • Expansion of Pell Grant eligibility to students enrolled in high-quality, short-term programs that lead to a credential, certification or license in a high-demand field.
  • On March 18, the White House released additional materials detailing President Donald Trump’s fiscal 2020 budget request, including the appendixanalytical perspectives and a document outlining “Major Savings and Reforms.

Read more on education policy on the McGuireWoods Consulting website. 

Hearings

House Committee on Energy and Commerce: “The Fiscal Year 2020 HHS Budget”
Tuesday, March 12, 2019: The Health Subcommittee held a hearing with Health and Human Services Secretary (HHS) Alex Azar on President Trump’s budget request related to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and its agencies for fiscal year (FY) 2020. Find a link to witness testimonies, member statements and the hearing live feed here.

Why this is important: Secretary of HHS, Alex Azar, answered questions from members on health-related proposals from the president’s FY2020 budget for approximately five hours, with one recess. General themes included Democrats concerned about children separated from their families at the border, pre-existing condition protections (Texas ACA case ruling), drug pricing concerns, the opioid epidemic and the lack of transparency by HHS and the administration as a whole. Any mention of Medicare-for-All was noted as “socialist medicine” by members of the minority party, while the majority party reiterated it would not allow this budget to pass.

Secretary Azar began his remarks by announcing the new Acting FDA Commissioner, Ned Sharpless, following the resignation of the former commissioner, Scott Gottlieb, last week. For most of the witness questioning, the majority party expressed concerns of how budget cuts will eliminate Medicare and Medicaid coverage and raise premiums for Americans, and that proposals in the budget, such as block-granting Medicare and bypassing Congress in that implementation process, are deeply concerning. The minority party praised the president and Secretary Azar for the budget, firmly supporting the HHS budget and proposed programs throughout questioning. 

House Committee on Energy and Commerce: “Lowering the Cost of Prescription Drugs: Reducing Barriers to Market Competition”
Wednesday, March 13, 2019: The Health Subcommittee held a hearing on rising prescription drug costs and the obstacles faced by market competition. Find a link to witness testimonies, member statements and the hearing live feed here.

Why this is important: This legislative hearing discussed the introduction of the following seven bills meant to address rising prescription drug costs:

  • H.R. 938, the “Bringing Low-cost Options and Competition while Keeping Incentives for New Generics (BLOCKING) Act of 2019,” introduced by Reps. Schrader (D-OR) and Carter (R-GA), would discourage parking of 180-day exclusivity by a first generic applicant by allowing FDA to approve a subsequent generic application prior to the first applicant’s first date of commercial marketing when the following four conditions have all been met: (1) the subsequent application is ready for full approval; (2) a minimum of 30 months has passed since at least one first applicant submitted their application for the drug; (3) any related patent litigation has been fully resolved; and (4) no first applicant is approved.
  • H.R. 965, the “Creating and Restoring Equal Access to Equivalent Samples (CREATES) Act of 2019,”introduced by Reps. Cicilline (D-RI), Sensenbrenner (R-WI), Nadler (D-NY), Collins (R-GA), Welch (D-VT) and McKinley (R-WV), would establish a process by which generic manufacturers could request that FDA authorize them to obtain sufficient quantities of samples for testing.
  • H.R. 985, the “Fair Access for Safe and Timely (FAST) Generics Act of 2019,” introduced by Reps. Welch, McKinley and Cicilline, establishes an authorization process by which generic manufacturers can gain access to samples of approved drug products that they are trying to genericize. 
  • H.R. 1499, the “Protecting Consumer Access to Generic Drugs Act of 2019,” introduced by Rep. Rush (D-IL), would make it illegal for brand-name and generic drug manufacturers to enter into agreements in which the brand-name drug manufacturer pays the generic manufacturer to keep a generic equivalent off the market.
  • H.R. 1503, the “Orange Book Transparency Act of 2019,” introduced by Rep. Kelly (D-IL), would help to ensure that the Orange Book is accurate and up-to-date, by requiring manufacturers to share complete and timely information with FDA, as well as ensuring that patents listed in the Orange Book are relevant to the approved drug product. Patents found to be invalid through a court decision or a decision by the Patent Trial and Appeal Board would be required to be removed promptly. 
  • H.R. 1506, the “Fair and Immediate Release (FAIR) of Generic Drugs Act,” introduced by Rep. Barragán (D-CA), would allow any generic filer who wins a patent challenge in court or is not sued for patent infringement by the brand manufacturer to share in the 180-day exclusivity period of first applicants that enter into patent settlements that delay entry.
  • H.R. 1520, the “Purple Book Continuity Act of 2019,” introduced by Subcommittee Chair Eshoo (D-CA), would amend the Public Health Service Act to codify publication of approved biological products in the Purple Book in a similar format and with similar requirements to the Orange Book, specify that the Purple Book should be published electronically on FDA’s website and updated routinely, and direct FDA to consider the types of patents that should be listed in the Purple Book.

House Committee on Appropriations: “Department of Health and Human Services Budget Request for FY 2020”
The Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and related agencies held a hearing with Health and Human Services Secretary (HHS) Alex Azar on President Trump’s budget request related to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and its agencies for fiscal year (FY) 2020. Find a link to witness testimonies, member statements and the hearing live feed here.

Why this is important: Members of the subcommittee focused on the zero tolerance policy on family separations at the border, with Secretary Azar reiterating that he was mostly in the dark for the creation of this policy. Later on, Secretary Azar said that the next FDA commissioner must be someone dedicated to cutting back youth’s use of e-cigarettes, a comment he has made throughout a week’s worth of congressional questioning. Secretary Azar also defended the new Title X rules, arguing the rules were in line with congressional intent.

Senate Committee on Finance: “The President’s Fiscal Year 2020 Budget”
Thursday, March 14, 2019: The Senate Committee on Finance held a full committee hearing with Health and Human Services Secretary (HHS) Alex Azar on President Trump’s budget request related to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and its agencies for fiscal year (FY) 2020. Find a link to witness testimonies, member statements and the hearing live feed here.

Why this is important: Members of the full committee questioned Secretary Azar on health-related proposals in the FY2020 budget in a two-part series held on one day. Azar acknowledged “absurdity” in the Medicare wage index after several senators complained about wide disparities in payments between states. Azar said HHS is seeking comments on a revision to the entire wage index system but cautioned that HHS can change the index only so much on its own. In regard to work requirements, Secretary Azar said that the more than 18,000 Arkansas residents who lost Medicaid coverage after work requirements took effect is a normal level associated with such a change. He also said complying with work requirements is not much to ask in return for health care paid for by taxpayers, a point he also made in an Energy and Commerce, Health Subcommittee hearing earlier in the week.

Read more on healthcare policy on the McGuireWoods Consulting website.

FY20 Budget Proposal

On Monday, the White House rolled out the President’s $4.7 trillion FY20 budget proposal, which includes $8.6 billion for a border wall and increases defense spending by $750 billion, or 5%. It also proposes a 9% cut to all non-defense programs, including a $845 billion cut to Medicare. Over the coming weeks, Cabinet secretaries and agency heads will testify in support of the request before the House and Senate Appropriations Committees and the various authorizing committees, but Congress will craft and pass its own spending bills.

The President and Congress are marking St. Patrick’s Day today. This morning, the President welcomed Irish Prime Minister Leo Varadkar to the White House before they attended the annual Friends of Ireland luncheon at the Capitol.

Veto Potential

The Senate spent the early part of the week on executive branch and judicial nominations before taking up a resolution on Wednesday to withdraw U.S. support for the Saudi-led war in Yemen. The resolution passed 54-46 and is likely to result in the President’s first veto. Earlier today, the Senate also voted 59-41 to adopt a House-passed resolution to end the President’s emergency declaration to direct funds to build a border wall. That resolution is also expected to draw a veto that Congress does not have the votes to override, likely sending the issue to the courts. In the meantime, the House voted 420-0 this morning to approve a non-binding resolution to publicly release the Mueller report. Four Republican members voted present.

Senate Artificial Intelligence Caucus Officially Launches

This week, Senators Portman (R-OH) and Heinrich (D-NM) officially launched the Senate Artificial Intelligence (AI) Caucus with Senators Schatz (D-HI), Gardner (R-CO), Peters (D-MI), and Ernst (R-IA) as founding members. The Caucus will foster dialogue between lawmakers and the executive branch, industry, and academia to develop “policy that balances AI’s risks and rewards to ensure the competitiveness of the U.S. economy, while maintaining important ethical standards.”

Digital Goods and Services Tax Fairness Act

Senators Thune (R-SD) and Wyden (D-OR) and Reps. Cohen (D-TN) and Ratcliffe (R-TX) reintroduced The Digital Goods and Services Tax Fairness Act (S. 765 and H.R. 1725) on Wednesday to prevent digital goods and services such as movies, apps, and music from double or discriminatory taxation not applied to tangible goods.

CHANCE in Tech Act

Bipartisan, bicameral lawmakers introduced legislation this week aimed at alleviating the skills gap in the technology sector by providing federal grants to state tech associations and other industry intermediaries to develop apprenticeships. The Championing Apprenticeships for New Careers and Employees in Technology (CHANCE in Tech) Act (S. 777 and H.R. 1733) is sponsored by Senators Gardner (R-CO), Heinrich (D-NM), Markey (D-MA), and Moran (R-KS) and Reps. Moulton (D-MA) and Herrera Beutler (R-WA).

Read more in our Emerging Technologies Washington Update.

Hearings

House Committee on Energy and Commerce: “Strengthening Our Health Care System: Legislation to Lower Consumer Costs and Expand Access”
Wednesday, March 6, 2019: The House Committee on Energy and Commerce held a hearing on lowering consumer costs and expanding access to health care. Find a link to witness testimonies, member statements and the hearing live feed here.

Why this is important: Using testimonies from the states of Massachusetts and California as prime examples, the Health Subcommittee outlined how three pieces of legislation could incentive and aid states to create insurance exchanges. Republican members of the subcommittee were collectively against this addition to the Affordable Care Act (ACA), while Rep. Buddy Carter (R-GA) asked that the subcommittee shift its focus to drug prices, much like a majority of other Congressional committees.

House Ways and Means Committee, Subcommittee on Health: “Promoting Competition to Lower Medicare Drug Prices”
Thursday, March 7, 2019: The House Ways and Means Subcommittee on Health held a hearing on lowering Medicare drug prices by promoting competition among manufacturers. Find a link to witness testimonies, member statements and the hearing live feed here.

Why this is important: Facilitating competition in health care markets to bring down drug prices is currently a popular topic in Congress. The hearing marked the first time since Democrats took control of the House that this panel has held a hearing on drug pricing issues. Among the topics discussed was legislation introduced by Rep. Lloyd Doggett (D-Texas), the health subcommittee’s chair, and Sen. Sherrod Brown (D-Ohio). The Medicare Negotiation and Competitive Licensing Act (S.377) that would allow Medicare to negotiate for lower drug prices by setting a price for a drug based on a number of market-based factors, such as clinical effectiveness and cost.

House Committee on the Judiciary: “Diagnosing the Problem: Exploring the Effects of Consolidation and Anticompetitive Conduct in Health Care Markets”
Thursday, March 7, 2019: The House Committee on the Judiciary held a hearing on the issue of anticompetitive conduct affecting health care markets. Find a link to witness testimonies, member statements and the hearing live feed here.

Why this is important: Members and witnesses criticized consolidation among hospitals and other healthcare sectors. According to the committee members, the public is told these deals will lead to improved efficiency and higher quality care, and those purported benefits frequently fail to materialize. The hearing grouped payer and provider consolidation with anticompetitive concerns about the pharmaceutical industry, topics that have gained interest from both parties.

Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (HELP): “Vaccines Save Lives: What is Driving Preventable Disease Outbreaks?”
Tuesday, March 5, 2019: The Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (HELP) held a hearing on the outbreak of preventable diseases and the debate on vaccinations. Find a link to witness testimonies, member statements and the hearing live feed here.

Why this is important: The hearing sought answers to the antivaccination movement that has led to a reduction in immunization rates in the United States. Unvaccinated individuals were cited by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as the root cause of recent measles outbreaks in the state of Washington and in other regions across the country. There was consensus on the panel and amongst Members that the movement could become detrimental if it continues to grow.

Senate Finance Committee: “Not Forgotten: Protecting Americans from Abuse and Neglect in Nursing Homes”
Wednesday, March 6, 2019: The Senate Committee on Finance held a hearing on the issue of abuse and neglect in nursing homes. Find a link to witness testimonies, member statements and the hearing live feed here.

Why this is important: Chairman Grassley has a long history in performing oversight of nursing homes from his days as a member of the Senate Special Committee on Aging and as a member of the Senate Finance Committee. Senators on both sides of the aisle also raised concerns with the closure of rural nursing homes, which one expert testified could be exacerbated by low Medicaid pay rates, and Finance Committee ranking Democrat Ron Wyden (OR) raised concerns with CMS’ proposal to roll back emergency preparedness requirements.

Senate Committee on Aging: “The Complex Web of Prescription Drug Prices, Part I: Patients Struggling with Rising Costs”
Wednesday, March 6, 2019: The Senate Committee on Aging held two hearings.The first hearing on rising costs of prescription drug prices. Find a link to witness testimonies, member statements and the hearing live feed here.

Senate Committee on Aging: “The Complex Web of Prescription Drug Prices, Part II: Untangling the Web and Paths Forward”
Thursday, March 7, 2019: This hearing was the second of a two-part hearing on drug prices. Find a link to witness testimonies, member statements and the hearing live feed here.

Why this is important: The two-part hearing series held last week had the Senate Aging committee join the topic of lowering drug prices. Senate Aging Committee Chair Susan Collins (R-ME) predicted that President Trump will have legislation on his desk late this year on the topic. Collins is considering legislation that would apply a proposed Medicare rebate policy to the commercial market, The Medicare proposal would ban rebates or make insurers subtract them from list prices when people buy drugs at the pharmacy. However, Senate Finance Chair Chuck Grassley (R-IA), whose committee has jurisdiction over rebate legislation, said he is not yet ready to discuss rebate legislation.

Read more on healthcare policy on the McGuireWoods Consulting website.

Election Reform Bill and Judicial Nominations

The House and Senate were both in session this week with the House focused on H.R. 1, Democrats’ election reform bill. The Senate spent the week processing several judicial nominations.

Key Personnel Announcements

The Administration made several key personnel announcement this week, including that the President will nominate Dale Cabaniss to be Director of the Office of Personnel Management. On Tuesday, Food and Drug Administration Commissioner Scott Gottlieb unexpectedly announced his intention to leave his post at the end of the month.

American Workforce Policy Advisory Board Meeting

The President attended the American Workforce Policy Advisory Board meeting on Wednesday at the White House alongside CEOs from major US companies. Senior EU officials, including European Commission Secretary-General Martin Selmayr, were in Washington this week for meetings with National Economic Council Director Larry Kudlow, US Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer, and others.

Read more in our Emerging Technologies Washington Update.

Hearings

House Committee on Energy and Commerce: “Confronting a Growing Public Health Threat: Measles Outbreaks in the U.S.”
Wednesday, Feb. 27, 2019: The House Energy and Commerce Committee’s Oversight and Investigations Subcommittee held hearing on the current measles outbreak and response efforts. This hearing focused on the need to combat information that discourages individuals from vaccinating their children. Find a link to witness testimonies, member statements and the hearing live feed here.

Why this is important: Since Jan. 1, 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported 101 individual measles cases in 10 states. The majority of measles cases have occurred in Clark County, WA, a suburb of Portland, OR, with 53 confirmed measles cases. Of those cases, 47 involved people who were not vaccinated against the disease, and 38 people infected were children between the ages of one and 10.

Senate Finance Committee: “Drug Pricing in America: A Prescription for Change, Part II”
Tuesday, Feb. 26, 2019: The second hearing in a series on drug pricing in the Senate Finance Committee included the testimonies of seven drug company executives. Leaders of pharmaceutical companies refused to testify at a previous hearing. The following seven companies were represented at this hearing:

  • AbbVie Inc.
  • AstraZeneca
  • Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.
  • Johnson & Johnson
  • Merck & Co., Inc.
  • Pfizer
  • Sanofi

Find a link to witness testimonies, member statements and the hearing live feed here.

Why this is important: The witnesses agreed that prescription drugs should be more affordable for Americans. However, they were reluctant to promise to cut list prices without other reforms. The executives argued that other factors, such as pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs) that negotiate discounts and insurance coverage, have greater influence on the price consumers pay at the pharmacy counter. They also emphasized drug rebates that do not always reach consumers, payments tied to the value of a drug and more transparency. Chairman Chuck Grassley (R-IA) confirmed that PBM executives will testify next before the committee in the hearing series.

House

Jayapal Introduces “Medicare for All” Bill
On Feb. 27, Rep. Pramila Jayapal (D-WA) introduced a bill to transition the health care system to a single-payer “Medicare for All” program funded by the government, with a transition period of two years. Jayapal’s proposal prohibits private insurance that duplicates what is offered through the government Medicare for All program. It also includes long-term care coverage. The plan sunsets Medicare and Medicaid, transitioning enrollees into the new universal plan. It continues, however, the Veterans Affairs (VA) health system and the Indian Health Services program as they exist now. Find and monitor H.R.1384 here.

Senate

Capito, Manchin Ask HHS to Align 42 CFR Part 2 with HIPAA
On Feb. 21, West Virginia Sens. Shelley Moore Capito (R) and Joe Manchin (D) sent a letter to the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Alex Azar, asking HHS to start working on a rule to align the strict 42 CFR Part 2 substance abuse privacy scheme with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). The regulation, 42 CFR Part 2, has often been cited as inhibiting the flow of information to providers. During the opioid legislation in the last Congress, an effort was made to address this, but ultimately it was dropped before final passage. HIPPA does not require explicit patient consent each time health records are shared. Find the “Dear Colleague” letter here.

Read more on healthcare policy on the McGuireWoods Consulting website.

House Passes Resolution of Disapproval to Block President’s Emergency Declaration

The House and Senate were both in session this week. On Tuesday, the House passed a resolution of disapproval to block the President’s emergency declaration to redirect funds to build a southern border wall. The measure passed 245-182 with support from 13 Republicans and appears on track to pass the Republican-controlled Senate as well, where Senators Collins (R-ME) and Udall (D-NM) will introduce a bipartisan resolution to terminate the declaration. The House is spending the balance of the week on legislation aimed at improving background checks for gun purchases that are unlikely to move in the Senate. The chamber also passed a number of bills on suspension this week, including a bill to improve access to STEM careers for veterans and another bill to increase penalties for unlawful or “pirate” broadcasts. Several House committees also heard this week from former Trump lawyer Michael Cohen, including an all-day public session on Wednesday before the Judiciary Committee. Elsewhere, US Trade Representative Lighthizer testified before the Ways and Means Committee on the US-China trade relationship amid ongoing negotiations between the two countries.

Senate Confirms Nominations

On the other side of the Capitol, the Senate blocked the Born-Alive Abortion Survivors Protection Act, which fell seven votes short of securing enough support to move forward. On Wednesday, the Senate voted 85-14 to confirm Michael Desmond as IRS Chief Counsel and Andrew Wheeler was confirmed today to be Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 52-47. The Senate Judiciary Committee also advanced Aditya Bamzai’s and Travis LeBlanc’s nominations to be members of the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board (PCLOB).

Legislation Introduced to Support Blockchain Industry

A group of bipartisan, bicameral lawmakers introduced legislation this week to support the continued development of the blockchain industry by creating a working group within the Department of Commerce comprised of federal and private sector stakeholders to establish a common definition of blockchain. The working group would also be charged to recommend opportunities to leverage blockchain to promote new innovations. The bill is in part intended to avoid different definitions of blockchain that may inhibit industry growth as various states have embarked on their own regulations.

The President spent most of the week in Vietnam for a second summit with North Korean leader Kim Jong Un. The summit ended early and abruptly today as the two sides failed to reach an agreement on sanctions.

Read more in our Emerging Technologies Washington Update.